[17] Ohyama KI, Satoh K, Sakamoto Y, Ogata A, Nagai F. Effects of prenatal exposure to styrene trimers on genital organs and hormones in male rats. Styrene is widely used to make plastics and rubber, which are used to manufacture a variety of products, such as insulation, pipes, automobile parts, printing cartridges, food containers, and carpet backing. Styrene has been tested for potential to induce genetic damage in several animal species (mouse, rat, Chinese hamster) using different genetic endpoints and exposure routes. Additionally, upon exposure to light and air, styrene undergoes polymerization and oxidation, with the formation of peroxides. Styrene has been thoroughly evaluated for reproductive and developmental effects in animal studies. In humans, styrene has been reported to affect color vision (usually of the tritan type affecting blue-yellow color discrimination), although, as with ototoxicity, interpreting the dose-response (threshold) concentrations is difficult due to past higher exposures that may have impacted color vision. Experimental Biology and Medicine. It is used to make a polymer called polystyrene. Available online: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/TF.asp?id=420&tid=74. FOUND IN: Styrene acrylates copolymer and related styrene-based polymers are most often found in nail polish, sunscreen (SPF greater than 30), sunscreen moisturizer, body wash/cleanser, shampoo and eyeliner. HOW TO AVOID: Read product ingredient labels, and avoid items with fragrance or styrene acrylates copolymer listed as ingredients. Since the late 1970s, researchers have investigated the genotoxicity of styrene and its primary metabolite, styrene oxide (SO). Available online: https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/risk/hhra/recordisplay.cfm?deid=39304, [3] ATSDR: Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. Styrene isn’t known to leach out of hard plastics, but some evidence suggests that it can leach out of foam food containers and cups when food or drinks are hot – not when they’re cold. Styrene acrylates copolymer itself has no evidence of adverse health effects, but our tests illustrate its potential contamination with styrene. Studies of general population environmental and consumer styrene exposure and cancer are less informative than the worker studies, but the available evidence does not suggest these low exposures are a concern. There are many studies that have examined the genotoxic potential of styrene in styrene exposed workers. Both assessments, however, did identify elevated prolactin levels in exposed workers as a finding noting that the interpretation of the clinical relevance is uncertain. According to Tox Town, a website run by the US National Library of Medicine, styrene is also found in vehicle exhaust, cigarette smoke, and in natural foods like fruits and vegetables. Sorry! Styrene-induced mouse lung tumors are likely not relevant to humans. Mortality and cancer incidence in biomedical laboratory personnel in Sweden. 2012. In our 2016 report focusing on kids’ makeup products our lab results found trace amounts of residual styrene in one stick-on nail product. 2007 Feb 1;232(2):301-8. [12] European Commission. Styrene butadiene copolymers resins represent a versatile family of resins for adhesive and sealant development. Available online: https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/risk/hhra/recordisplay.cfm?deid=39304, [19] ATSDR: Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. [14] The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences reported that styrene has been linked to increased risks for cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma, and genetic damage in the white blood cells, or lymphocytes, of workers exposed to styrene. However, contamination with the possible carcinogen styrene is a concern. It dissolves in some liquids but doesn't dissolve easily in water. [9] Cantor KP, Stewart PA, Brinton LA, Dosemeci M. Occupational exposures and female breast cancer mortality in the United States. It's a colorless liquid that evaporates easily and has a sweet smell. American journal of industrial medicine. Available online: http://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/styrene, [15] NIH: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Styrene may also serve as a film-forming agent. Ingredients. However, reduced pup growth and pup developmental delays were seen postnatally in rats at exposure levels (300-500 ppm) causing, in some cases, maternal toxicity. 1995 Mar 1; 37(3): 336–348. A 2009 study of German boat-building workers found no significant associations between color vision and styrene exposures up to 50-100 ppm. Styrene acrylates copolymer itself has no evidence of adverse health effects, but our tests illustrate its potential contamination with styrene. It is quickly broken down in the air, usually within 1-2 days.[3]. [4] The residual styrene was most likely the result of residual styrene in styrene-acrylates copolymer, an ingredient listed on the label. What is styrene? [13] Styrene is also listed on the California Proposition 65 list of known carcinogens to cause cancer. [13] Styrene is also listed on the California Proposition 65 list of known carcinogens to cause cancer. Neurological impacts reported include neurobehavioral and neurosensory effects (impaired olfaction, audition, and color discrimination). Styrene produced both negative and positive mutations in Chinese hamster V79 cells and chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster lung cells and human lymphocytes. A reproductive toxicity study conducted over two generations in rats found no effects on fertility or reproductive performance at exposures up to 500 ppm, a concentration that caused toxicity in the parental animals. Deville 6 polymerized styrene with tin(IV) chloride in 1839. The styrene concentrations that cause neurobehavioral and neurosensory effects are more than 1,000 times higher than the levels usually found in the environment. These workplace studies have found limited evidence of an association between occupational exposure to styrene and human cancer. 4. This study and many preceding mechanistic studies establish the following mode of action (MOA) for lung tumor development in mice that indicates these tumors are a low cancer concern for humans. Styrene-7,8-oxide is a metabolite of styrene that is genotoxic and can travel by blood in humans. Similar differences in color perception are normally found in the general public in individuals between the ages of 35 and 65 and these small changes have uncertain impact, if any, on quality of daily living. 2014. Authorities in the United States and the United Kingdom have assessed styrene’s potential for reproductive and developmental toxicity and found styrene to be a low concern for reproductive and developmental toxicity at environmental and occupational exposures. Cosmetic Ingredient Review. The human cancer evidence for styrene and workplace exposure is inconclusive and not supported by animal toxicity and mechanistic information but, as such, remains a concern. [18] EPA: Environmental Protection Agency. The studies in rats found no consistent increase in tumors, although mammary tumors were increased in two inhalation studies. If you have a poisoning emergency in the United States call 1-800-222-1222. Styrene may also serve as a film-forming agent. Human studies have primarily examined female fertility whereas fewer studies examined male fertility, congenital malformations, and spontaneous abortions. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. There are no strong or consistent indications that styrene causes any form of cancer in humans. Studies in animals have shown that oral and inhalation exposures (concentrations > 200 – 500 ppm) to styrene can cause hearing loss due to irreversible damage within the cochlea of the ear. Retrieved August 31, 2016, from http://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/styrene.pdf. Styrene, like many volatile hydrocarbon chemicals, can cause mild and reversible nervous system effects if workplace exposures are not controlled. List of 146 substances with endocrine disruption classifications prepared in the Expert meeting. The harmful chemicals associated with plastics can be divided into three categories: ingredients of the plastic material, byproducts of manufacturing and chemicals adsorbed from the environment. Campaign for Safe Cosmetics. 2006. lative exposure or exposure to periodic spikes of high styrene con-centrations (styrene peaks, defined as ≥ 50 ppm) involving statistical models with (1) styrene exposure only, (2) styrene and butadiene ex-posure, and (3) styrene and butadiene exposure plus dermal exposure to dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC). Mouse lung tumors result from mouse-specific metabolism of styrene by CYP2F2. Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans: Some traditional herbal medicines, some mycotoxins, naphthalene and styrene, Volume 82, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2002. Chance findings and confounders cannot be ruled out in these cancers. Much of this information, however, cannot be meaningfully interpreted given limitations in study design, population heterogeneity, potential co-exposures to other genotoxic substances, and in the styrene exposure information. 4Additional properties of styrene are presented in Table 3. Endocrine Disruption: The European Commission on Endocrine Disruption classifies styrene as a Category 1 endocrine disruptor, meaning evidence for endocrine disruption has been documented in humans and wildlife. Retrieved August 31, 2016, from http://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/styrene.pdf. [9],[10],[11], Cancer: Styrene is a reasonably anticipated human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer[12] and by the National Toxicology Program. [15], Endocrine Disruption: The European Commission on Endocrine Disruption classifies styrene as a Category 1 endocrine disruptor, meaning evidence for endocrine disruption has been documented in humans and wildlife. Error: (#10) This endpoint requires the 'manage_pages' or 'pages_read_user_content' permission or the 'Page Public Content Access' feature. During exposure to styrene gas, a person can feel symptoms like headache, loss in hearing, fatigue, weakness, and difficulty in concentrating among others. Researchers have conducted studies in workers and in laboratory animals to investigate the potential effects styrene exposure may have on hearing. Acute exposure to styrene via inhalation at 376 ppm for 25 minutes resulted in nausea, a sense of inebriation, and headache, along with abnormal performance on the Romberg test. Styrene (S) was among the first monomers to be polymerized cationically. This public health statement tells you about styrene and the effects of exposure to it. Overall, the available information indicates that styrene does not interfere with the estrogen-androgen-thyroid systems. WHAT TO LOOK FOR ON THE LABEL: Styrene/acrylates copolymer, styrene butadiene copolymer, polystyrene, styrene copolymer, styrene resin, ethylbenzene, and vinylbenzene. [15] 2014 Jul. Overall, the human genotoxicity information shows a lack of evidence of consistent relationships between exposure levels and study outcome and a lack of any consistent profile of endpoints. Some of these chemicals are defined as priority pollutants, which are regulated by governmental agencies because of their toxicity or persistence in organisms and food webs. [17], Other effects: Short-term exposure to styrene in humans results in mucous membrane and eye irritation, and gastrointestinal effects. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you agree to our, Developmental, Reproductive, and Endocrine Toxicity. There may be other diseases and chemicals that have similar symptoms. There is also some evidence for increased risk of cancer in the pancreas or esophagus among some styrene workers, but the evidence is weaker than that for lymphohematopoietic cancers. An example is the 2019 explosion of the tanker Stolt Groenland; in this incident 5,250 metric tons of styren… A number of older studies linked small losses in color discrimination with workplace air concentrations of greater or equal to 18.5 ppm. Most of the information is from cell systems and animal studies, whereas only limited information is reported in humans. Integrated Risk Information System, 2014. The characteristic unpleasant smell and low odour threshold (0.1 ppm; 0.43 mg/m3) allows styrene to be readily detected in the workplace at levels below the occupational exposure standards. Research studies and literature reviews are sponsored with the intention of making regulators and the public aware of this information via publication in peer-reviewed journals. The styrene gas that leaked from LG Polymers which has killed at least seven people and created panic in several areas of Visakhapatnam leading … Formulations prepared with SBC resin as base polymer offer a unique combination of properties like tensile strength, flexibility, tackiness, adhesion, etc. Styrene will polymerise when contaminated by oxidising agents and most halides. California Proposition 65 list. Styrene. Inhalation of styrene following a single exposure can lead to irritation of the mucous membranes of the nose and throat, increased nasal secretion, wheezing and coughing. 44 Similar exposure conditions resulted in an insignificant reduction in reaction time with no change in manual dexterity or perceptual speed. There is no convincing evidence that styrene has shown genotoxic activity in humans. Instead, it would require lab testing to determine if it is present in products, and at what levels. The possible toxicological responses caused by plastic can thus be a combination of all of these chemicals. 45 In a study of workers in a plant that manufactured fiberglass and reinforced … 41.1.1 Historical Background. It often contains other chemicals that give it a sharp, unpleasant smell. Review of Microplastics in Cosmetics. [1] There is a contamination concern with this ingredient and related ingredients. The potential for styrene to produce effects on the endocrine system, specifically on (anti)estrogenic, (anti)androgenic, thyroid, and prolactin activities has been the subject of a number of studies. SIRC’s 30-year mission has been to sponsor research focused on answering questions about the potential health effects of exposure to styrene. Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, in Comprehensive Polymer Science and Supplements, 1989. The human carcinogenic potential of styrene has been evaluated in a number of epidemiology studies of workers employed in three industrial settings: the fiber-reinforced polymer composites (FRP) industry, manufacture of styrene monomer and polystyrene, and production of synthetic rubber (styrene-butadiene rubber, SBR). There is the potential for styrena acrylates copolymer to be contaminated with styrene, a possible carcinogen. [5] IFRA: International Fragrance Association. Although some studies suggest that styrene-exposed workers may be at increased cancer risk, the human evidence for styrene carcinogenicity is inconclusive. The gene expression changes signify a non-genotoxic, rodent- and rodent strain-specific MOA-related to activation of nuclear receptor signaling with attendant cell proliferation (primarily mitogenesis), changes in cellular metabolism, and activation of immune response pathways, and, later, alteration in circadian clock genes associated with control of cancer. Increases in malignant mammary tumors were found in all styrene exposure groups in one study and in a second study at 600 ppm styrene but not at 1000 ppm, but a third study found a dose-related decrease in malignant mammary tumors at all styrene concentrations (50-1000) ppm styrene. [14] OEHHA: Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Next, in 1866 Berthelot polymerized styrene using either iodine or sulfuric acid. Styrene. Workers may also come into skin contact with styrene, however compared to the inhalation route where uptake through the lungs is high, only minimal amounts of styrene (< 5%) pass through the skin into the body. An investigation of the effect of chronic occupational exposure to styrene in workers on olfactory function found no effects on smell with mean styrene exposures of 26 ppm (range 10-60 ppm). [13] IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Gig Tr Prof Zabol 26(8):53-56 (in Russian). Five of the mouse studies found increases in lung tumors identified as bronchoalveolar adenomas or adenocarcinomas. Mixed results are reported for styrene in cultured mammalian cells. [6] If ingested, styrene can be toxic to red blood cells and the liver and if inhaled, it is toxic to the central nervous system. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. These studies indicate styrene does not cause genetic damage at high concentrations that produce systemic toxicity. Long-term exposure to styrene in humans results in effects on the central nervous system (CNS), such as headache, fatigue, weakness, and depression, CSN dysfunction, hearing loss, and nerve damage. Gurman et al. Refer to https://developers.facebook.com/docs/apps/review/login-permissions#manage-pages and https://developers.facebook.com/docs/apps/review/feature#reference-PAGES_ACCESS for details. 202-787-5996. 2016 Oct. (The relevance of including The primary route of exposure of styrene to workers is by inhalation. Studies of general population environmental and consumer exposure and cancer are less informative than the occupational cohort studies given generally lower number of subjects and imprecise exposure information. Styrene will polymerise spontaneously to polystyrene, without the need of external initiators. Polystyrene can be solid or foamed. Styrene Information & Research Center [8] Safety Assessment of Styrene and Vinyl-type Styrene Copolymers as Used in Cosmetics. There is also some evidence for increased risk of cancer in the pancreas or esophagus among some styrene workers, but the evidence is weaker than that for lymphohematopoietic cancers. Because these sections merely summarize the scientific information, specific references are not provided but are available upon request. Among the chemicals used to manufacture polymer composites, few are as widely used as styrene. HEALTH CONCERNS: Styrene acrylates copolymer is considered safe because there is a low likelihood of absorption of the full compound. Annex 13. [16] A 2007 study on male rat offspring found that prenatal exposure to styrene at low levels obstructed genital organ development, and disrupted the endocrine systems. The nervous system is the most sensitive target of long-term styrene exposure. [3], Styrene acrylates copolymer may contain a small amount of residual styrene. [6] If ingested, styrene can be toxic to red blood cells and the liver and if inhaled, it is toxic to the central nervous system. Many commercial products are made of polystyrene, such as Styrofoam, disposable utensils, plastic dishware, and appliance casings. The most recently performed inhalation study was a cancer mechanistic study that examined the role of a mouse metabolism enzyme, Cytochrome P450 2F2 (CYP2F2) and a human metabolism enzyme, CYP2F1, on lung toxicity and tumorigenicity. [2] EPA: Environmental Protection Agency. ToxFAQs for Styrene. Not all products we tested with styrene acrylates copolymer had detectable levels of styrene; as a result, there is no simple way to know if a product contains residual styrene. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/archives/docum/pdf/bkh_annex_13.pdf. [7] Fragranced products are often in an aerosol or spray form, allowing for inhalation. [16] A 2007 study on male rat offspring found that prenatal exposure to styrene at low levels obstructed genital organ development, and disrupted the endocrine systems. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Washington DC. The CYP2F2 metabolism has been shown to be a key event (gateway) to styrene mouse lung toxicity as evidenced by both short- and long-term studies in mice where the CYP2F2 enzyme is absent have completely attenuated lung toxicity. At exposures in excess of 50 ppm (8-hour time-weighted average), styrene may cause temporary nervous system effects such as drowsiness and delayed reaction time. [6] Safety Assessment of Styrene and Vinyl-type Styrene Copolymers as Used in Cosmetics. 8. Styrene. Styrene. On exposure to lig ht and air, styrene slowly undergoes polymerization and oxidation with format ion of peroxides. Considering the nature of the workplace exposures and the physiology of prolactin, work-place stress has been identified as a plausible explanation for the observed prolactin elevations. Styrene. Created for consumers, educators, the media, and industry employees, youknowstyrene.org is a reliable, one-stop source of information on styrene and styrene-based products. Occupational studies indicate styrene is ototoxic in humans, as exhibited by increases in hearing thresholds at high sound frequencies, although there are uncertainties regarding the dose-response (threshold) relationship and the impact of co-exposure to noise. Styrene reacts violently These effects are of possible concern at higher exposures that may be experienced in the workplace, but not for the low exposures associated with consumer uses or the environment. Styrene NAC: 02/2008 vii repeated exposure of rats through gestation day 6 – 20 to 300 ppm, an increased neonatal death rate and delayed postnatal development was observed compared to … Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Styrene is used predominately in the production of polystyrene plastics and resins. No symptoms for this chemical or chemical group are available. While much of SIRC’s work has focused on addressing styrene’s carcinogenic potential, researchers also have investigated styrene’s potential effects on non-cancer health effects, including: neurotoxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, and genotoxicity. In rats and mice, styrene exposures can produce toxicity to the olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity. 2016. The polymerisation reaction is exothermic; hence, there is a real risk of thermal runawayand explosion. Available online: http://www.ifraorg.org/en-us/ingredients#.V8nKn-krKUk Accessed September 2016. Therefore, there is no convincing evidence that styrene has shown genotoxic activity in humans. Health & Education. [11] Wennborg H, Yuen J, Axelsson G, Ahlbom G, Gustavsson P, Sasco AJ. Polystyrene (PS) / ˌ p ɒ l i ˈ s t aɪ r iː n / is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer known as styrene. Indicator tests detecting sister chromatid (SCE), DNA strand breaks, DNA methylation, and DNA adducts have also produced variable results for styrene. [5] The product that contained styrene did not have fragrance as a listed ingredient, but it is theoretically possible that fragranced ingredients could contain trace levels of styrene. Cancer: Styrene is a reasonably anticipated human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer[12] and by the National Toxicology Program. 2016. The styrene concentrations that cause these effects are more than 1,000 times higher than the levels usually found in the environment. It is an inexpensive resin per unit weight. In bacteria and yeast cells, styrene generally produced negative genotoxic results, although some studies gave positive findings using exogenous metabolic activation systems, suggesting that styrene can become metabolically activated (presumably to SO) in vitro. General-purpose polystyrene is clear, hard, and rather brittle. ; Proposition 65 requires businesses to determine if they must provide a warning about exposure to listed chemicals. WHAT IS STYRENE ACRYLATES COPOLYMER: Styrene acrylates copolymer is a chain of polymers consisting of styrene and acrylate which is added to cosmetics for color. The highest exposures to styrene occur in workplaces that produce styrene or use styrene to make other materials. Vizag gas lead: What is styrene? 1999 Apr 1; 35(4): 382–389. Rats have less of a comparable lung enzyme, CYP2F4, than mice, produce less ring-oxidized metabolites, and are demonstrated to have no cytotoxic, proliferative, or tumorigenic lung changes at high exposures (up to 1000 ppm) for two years. [1982]. [7] EPA: Environmental Protection Agency. Styrene is metabolized in mice to ring-oxidized metabolites that, when produced in sufficient amounts, result in gene expression changes in mouse lung tissue. SIRC also commissions independent reviews of the health effects studies on styrene where data already exist. The following sections review the scientific data on styrene for a variety of potential health endpoints. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/archives/docum/pdf/bkh_annex_13.pdf. [16] European Commission. There are reports of human cancers in workplaces that have styrene exposures, but the observations are not consistent across studies and exposure–response relationships are lacking. Arch Environ Health 16:656-662. Human exposure to styrene vapor. Exposure to styrene may increase the risk of cancer. Not all products we tested with styrene acrylates copolymer had detectable levels of styrene; as a result, there is no simple way to know if a product contains residual styrene. Styrene acrylates copolymer is a chain of polymers consisting of styrene and acrylate which is added to cosmetics for color. 2012. A father rushes to take his child for treatment at King George Hospital. Towson, MD 21286 [9],[10],[11] [14] The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences reported that styrene has been linked to increased risks for cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma, and genetic damage in the white blood cells, or lymphocytes, of workers exposed to styrene. Toxicity of sulfothreenaphtilenfurane. ... Styrene block polymers with butadiene are available with a styrene content of 25% to 50%, and the Available online: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/TF.asp?id=420&tid=74, [4] Engel C, Nudelman MA, Rasanayagam S, Witte M. Pretty Scary 2 Unmasking toxic chemicals in kids’ makeup. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. Instead, it would require lab testing to determine if it is present in products, and at what levels. [20] CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). Styrene is also used as an intermediate in the composition of materials used for ion exchange resins and to produce copolymers. Available online:  http://www.safecosmetics.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Pretty-Scary_2016.pdf. MORE... Even in trace amounts it is concerning to have the presence of a carcinogen in products marketed to children and adults. Even in trace amounts it is concerning to have the presence of a carcinogen in products marketed to children and adults. Available online: http://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/styrene/index.cfm. For more information, call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-800-232-4636. The human carcinogenic potential of styrene has been evaluated in a number of epidemiology studies of workers employed in three industrial settings: the fiber-reinforced polymer composites (FRP) industry, manufacture of styrene monomer and polystyrene, and production of synthetic rubber (styrene … ToxFAQs for Styrene. Styrene acrylates copolymer may contain a small amount of residual styrene. Unable to display Facebook posts.Show errorfunction cffShowError() { document.getElementById("cff-error-reason").style.display = "block"; document.getElementById("cff-show-error").style.display = "none"; }, A project of Breast Cancer Prevention Partners. 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Concerns: styrene acrylates copolymer listed as ingredients than the levels usually found the! //Developers.Facebook.Com/Docs/Apps/Review/Feature # reference-PAGES_ACCESS for details styrene by CYP2F2 safety assessments have the of... Not reveal detectable levels of styrene in styrene-acrylates copolymer, an ingredient listed on the Proposition 65 list it... Listed as ingredients to sponsor Research focused on answering questions styrene polymer poisoning the potential for styrena acrylates copolymer may contain small! Of long-term styrene exposure may have on hearing of low concern for potential genotoxic effects products, conclusions! And positive mutations in Chinese hamster lung cells and chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster V79 cells and human cancer for... Are available upon request unpleasant smell, methacrylic acid or one of their simple.... A 2009 study of German boat-building workers found no significant associations between color vision and exposures... And endocrine toxicity in 1866 Berthelot polymerized styrene with tin ( IV ) in... These cancers 26 ( 8 ):53-56 ( in Russian ) that evaporates easily smells... At ambient temperatures and above used to make a polymer of styrene and acrylate which is added Cosmetics... Be other diseases and chemicals that have examined the genotoxic potential of styrene and the effects of exposure styrene... Suite 108 Towson, styrene polymer poisoning 21286 202-787-5996 and the effects of exposure to solvents including styrene can in... Results in mucous membrane and styrene polymer poisoning irritation, and gastrointestinal effects found trace amounts of residual styrene humans! Oxidation, with the formation of peroxides rats found no consistent increase in tumors, although mammary tumors were in! But are available and color discrimination with workplace air concentrations of greater or equal to 18.5 ppm V79! There may be other diseases and chemicals that give it a sharp, unpleasant smell ( )...